Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level. 
The Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution 
in Biology

Gilbert N. Ling, Ph.D.
Pacific Press

ISBN 0-9707322-0-1

"Dr. Ling is one of the most inventive biochemist I have ever met."
Prof. Albert Szent-Györgyi,
Nobel Laureate

List of Abbreviations
and Selected Symbols

a1, a2: activities of ionic species 1 and 2 respectively
ADP: adenosine diphosphate
AI Hypothesis: association-induction hypothesis
AIH: association-induction hypothesis
Ala: alanine residue
Arg: arginine residue
Asn: asparagine residue
Asp: aspartic acid residue
ATP: adenosine triphosphate

CG-electrode: collodion-coated glass electrode
Cl: chlorine atom
Сl-: chlorine ion
CO group: carbonyl group
CONH: peptide bond
CrP: creatine phosphate, phosphocreatine
Cs+: cesium ion
CSA: close-contact surface adsorption theory of cellular electric potentials
Cys: cysteine residue

DK: diffusion coefficient of K+
DPG: diphosphoglycerate, an organic phosphate found in red blood cells

E. coli: see Escherichia coli in Glossary
EDC: electron-donating cardinal adsorbent
EIC: electron-indifferent cardinal adsorbent
EMOC: effectively membrane-pump-less open-ended cell preparation
EPPI: Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute
EWC: electron-withdrawing cardinal adsorbent

f-: fixed monovalent anion
f+: fixed monovalent cation
f+ Y-: associated fixed monovalent cation-free monovalent anion pair
f- Х+: associated fixed monovalent anion-free monovalent cation pair

-γ/2: nearest neighbor interaction energy
γK: activity coefficient of potassium ion (K+)
Gln: glutamine residue
Glu: glutamic acid residue
Gly: glycine residue

H: hydrogen atom
H+: hydrogen ion, or proton
His: histidine residue
HKKP: Hodgkin-Keynes-Kushmerick-Podolsky
H20: normal water molecule

IAA: iodoacetic acid or iodoacetate ion
Ile: isoleucine residue

K+: potassium ion
КK: adsorption constant of K+
KNa: adsorption constant of Na+
KooNa––>K: intrinsic equilibrium constant between Na+ and K+
Kooi–>j: intrinsic equilibrium constant between ith and jth ion or molecule

Leu: leucine residue
LFCH: Ling's fixed charge hypothesis
Li: lithium atom
Li+: lithium ion
Lys: lysine residue

μ: micron, 10-4 cm
Met: methionine residue

N sites: negatively charged site
Na+: sodium ion
NaOH: sodium hydroxide
Na2S04: sodium sulfate
NH4+: ammonium ion
NH group: imino group
NO-NO-NO: a chain of alternatingly negatively-charged N sites and vacant O sites
(NO-NO-NO)n: parallel array of NO-NO-NO chains where each NO-NO-NO chain is immediately surrounded by n similar chains
NO-NO-NO system: a system of NO-NO-NO chains
NP-NP-NP: a chain of alternatingly positively-charged P sites and vacant O sites
NP system: a two-dimensional array or checkerboard of alternatingly negatively-charged N sites and positively-charged P sites
NP-NP system: juxtaposed checkerboard of two dimensional array of alternating negatively-charged N sites and positively-charged P sites
(NP-NP-NP)n: parallel array of NP-NP-NP chains where each NP-NP-NP chain is
immediately surrounded by n similar chains
O sites: vacant sites

π: osmotic pressure
(ρ: Greek rho, see under R)
P~: high energy phosphate bond
Pcellulose acetate membrane: permeability through a layer of heat-activated cellulose
acetate membrane
PCl: permeability constant of chloride ion
Pfrog skin: permeability through a sheet of inverted frog skin
p°/p: reciprocal of partial vapor pressure where p is the existing vapor pressure
and p° is the vapor pressure at saturation under the same condition
PK: permeability constant for K+
PNa: permeability constant for Na+
Pro: proline residue
P sites: positively-charged sites
PEI: poly(ethylene imine), a linear polymer carrying fixed positively charged imine groups
PEO: poly(ethylene oxide), a linear polymer carrying fixed oxygen atoms serving as an extrovert model
Phe: phenylalanine residue
PM theory: polarized multilayer theory of cell water and model systems
PVME: polyvinylmethylether, another highly useful extrovert model
PVP: polyvinylpyrrolidone, another useful extrovert model

q: true equilibrium distribution coefficient or q-value

R: the gas constant, equal to 1.987 cal per degree per mole
ρ: apparent equilibrium distribution coefficient or ρ-value
R': an empirically determined constant that approaches the value of R
Rb: rubidium atom
Rb+: rubidium ion
Residue: each amino acid when incorporated into a polypeptide or protein is referred to as an amino-acid residue Example: glycine residue comes from the amino acid, glycine

SA theory: the surface adsorption theory of cellular electric potential was a term introduced with the AI Hypothesis but later replaced by the name close-contact surface adsorption theory (CSA theory)
SDS: sodium dodecyi sulfate, an anionic detergent
S.D. or s.d.: standard deviation
S.E. or s.e.: standard error of the mean
Ser: serine residue

T: absolute temperature
t1/2: half time of exchange
τr: rotational correlation time
Thr: threonine residue
Тl+: thalium cation
Trp: tryptophane residue
Tyr: tyrosine residue

Us: the surface component of solute-water interaction energy
Uvp: exclusion intensity of solute-water interaction energy It includes both an energy component and an entropy component.
V: volume
V1: partial molal volume It represents the actual volume a mole of a substance occupies when it constitutes one of two (or more) components of a solution.
Val: valine residue

X+: a monovalent free cation
x/1: length x expressed as a fraction of the total length 1
Y-: free monovalent anion

Z-Line: the dense line at the either end of a sarcomere

ψ: symbol used to designate the magnitude of the resting or action potential

ψ°: a constant used in Nicolsky's equation (equation 9) for glass electrode potential

Разделы книги
"Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level.
The Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology":

Contents (PDF 218 Kb)
Preface (
PDF 155 Kb)
Answers to Reader's Queries (Read First!) (
PDF 120 Kb)

1. How It Began on the Wrong Foot---Perhaps Inescapably
2. The Same Mistake Repeated in Cell Physiology
3. How the Membrane Theory Began
4. Evidence for a Cell Membrane Covering All Living Cells
5. Evidence for the Cell Content as a Dilute Solution
6. Colloid, the Brain Child of a Chemist
7. Legacy of the Nearly Forgotten Pioneers
8. Aftermath of the Rout
9. Troshin's Sorption Theory for Solute Distribution
10. Ling's Fixed Charge Hypothesis (LFCH)
11. The Polarized Multilayer Theory of Cell Water
12. The Membrane-Pump Theory and Grave Contradictions
13. The Physico-chemical Makeup of the Cell Membrane
14. The Living State: Electronic Mechanisms for its Maintenance and Control
15. Physiological Activities: Electronic Mechanisms and Their Control by ATP, Drugs, Hormones and Other Cardinal Adsorbents
16. Summary Plus
17. Epilogue 

A Super-Glossary

List of Abbreviations
List of Figures, Tables and Equations
References (
PDF 193 Kb)
Subject Index
About the Author

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