Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level. The Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology

Gilbert N. Ling, Ph.D.

Pacific Press
ISBN 0-9707322-0-1

"Dr. Ling is one of the most inventive biochemist I have ever met."
Prof. Albert Szent-Györgyi, Nobel Laureate

This book is translated into Russian
Эта книга переведена на русский язык

Main principles of Ling’s physical theory of the living cell

Discover Missing "Big Ideas" in Biology. 
Insure Well-being of Our Species.

On June 28, 2000, Anjetta McQueen of the Associated Press made banner headlines with her report in major U.S. newspapers: a study of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Project 2061) showed that 9th through 12th grade biology textbooks uniformly fail to convey "big ideas."
This is grave news. It means that entire future generations of Americans might not be adequately educated in fundamental biology, the only remaining and still largely unexplored body of basic knowl-edge. Thus handicapped, they might not be able to effectively cope with imminent critical issues, including the following:

Looming Danger

AIDS - a disease unknown 25 years ago - is devastating the human population in entire sections of the African continent. In America alone, 1500 men, women and children die of cancer every-day. There is no cure for either. Drugs sold to alleviate suffering are developed by the exceedingly expensive and inefficient methods of random chance, and thus are unavailable to all but the wealthy. Even more worrisome is the impending exhaustion (in 40 to 50 years) of oil and natural gas, which now provide energy for virtually all the essential activities of modern society - including drug manufacturing and farming. The question is who is going to combat and resolve these problems before it is too late? Whoever they are, they must include students who are now taking, or will be taking, courses in high school and college biology.

Quickly-Needed Change

We do not train soldiers by encouraging them to watch cartoons all day long. Why then should we train our future scientist-warriors by befuddling them with an unending regimen of Technicolor trivia? Instead, we must train and prepare those who are qualified and interested in becoming scientists to be honest, courageous and dedicated to the search for truth. We must teach them how to think for themselves and help them to develop the skills and habits necessary to independently acquire knowledge from outside the classroom. We must see to it that they grasp the essence of the very latest fundamental biological truths.

To achieve all this quickly will not be easy. What is needed is a magic bridge. Fortunately, Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level is just that... and more.

A Magic Bridge to the Missing "Big Ideas"

Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level is a magic bridge leading to a hitherto invisible world of knowledge - a world based on the Association-Induction (AI) Hypothesis, a unifying theory of life at the cell and below-cell level. From its very inception, the AI Hypothesis has generated a constellation of subsidiary "big ideas," including the first and only theory of how drugs control cell function in molecular and electronic terms.

The AI Hypothesis and its subsidiary "big ideas" have long passed the stage of being categorized as mere complex hypotheses. Over the past 40 years, they have been validated, without exception, time and time again by a steady, worldwide stream of experimentation and scientific papers. The AI Hypothesis, its subsidiary "big ideas," and the key experimental results that have validated them are the main subjects of Life at the Cell and. Below-Cell Level. The book also offers a variety of ancillary materials that will, in the course of perhaps a few days to a few weeks, help transform seriously-interested readers into well-rounded authorities on this major field of knowledge - so much so that they will, without hesitation, take up the task of imparting this new knowledge to others, or perhaps continue the research themselves. Only then can they effectively avert the disastrous course that might follow and, instead, embark on a course of hope - a course that will eventually lead to victory.

What's in the Book?

Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level consists of 17 chapters, including five that are devoted to the presentation of the AI Hypothesis. Together they outline the entire history of cell and subcellular life science. The book, over 380 pages long, has 72 text figures, 6 tables, an appendix, a list of abbreviations, over 550 references, an author index, and a subject index. There is a particularly useful custom-designed dictionary called the Super Glossary, which lists over 900 scientific names, technical terms and basic concepts used in the volume. Since mastery of this volume requires some basic knowledge of biology, physics and chemistry, the Super Glossary provides detailed background information from these areas, thus insuring that the reader can, without outside help, understand all that is presented in the book. In addition, there is a "road map" entitled Answers to Readers' Queries that explains how best to read the book and make use of the Super Glossary.

For Whom is This Book Written?

This book is produced for a variety of readers, including science-oriented, career-seeking students; dedicated biology teachers and school-board members concerned about what is currently being taught in the classroom; medical-pharmaceutical researchers looking for an effective guiding paradigm; physicians seeking a better understanding of the treatment of diseases; physics, mathematics or chemistry teachers seeking knowledge of unexplored fields that would benefit their students; and sophisticated and adventuresome readers who are unsatisfied with what they have read about our most precious possession - life itself - and want to know more.

About the Author

Born in Nanking, China, Dr. Ling received his biology degree from the National Central University in Chungking. He then took part in a nation-wide competitive examination and won the Boxer Scholarship slot in biology for study in the U.S. He and the other Boxer scholars arrived in the U.S. in November of 1945. In 1948, Dr. Ling received his Ph.D. from the Department of Physiology at the University of Chicago and then continued there for two more years of advanced education as a postdoctoral fellow. Dr. Ling's first job (1950) was that of instructor at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. In 1953, he was appointed assistant professor and, later, associate professor at the Chicago campus of the University of Illinois. In 1957, he accepted the position of senior research scientist at the Basic Research Department of the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute, continuing his research there until 1962. Naturalized in 1961, Dr. Ling carried on full-time research as the director of the Molecular Biology Department of the Pennsylvania Hospital for the next 27 years. In 1988, he moved to Long Island, New York to continue his research and writing at the Damadian Foundation for Basic and Cancer Research (a part of Fonar Corporation) in Melville. Dr. Ling has published over 200 scientific papers and reviews. Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level is his fourth full-length book. He was a co-editor-in-chief (1984-1990) and, since 1990, the sole editor-in-chief of the scientific journal. Physiological Chemistry and Physics & Medical NMR.

Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level
ISBN 0-9707322-0-1, soft cover,
over 380 pages, 51/2" x 81/2"

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Разделы книги
"Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level.
The Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology

Contents (PDF 218 Kb)
Preface (
PDF 155 Kb)
Answers to Reader's Queries (Read First!) (
PDF 120 Kb)

1. How It Began on the Wrong Foot---Perhaps Inescapably
2. The Same Mistake Repeated in Cell Physiology
3. How the Membrane Theory Began
4. Evidence for a Cell Membrane Covering All Living Cells
5. Evidence for the Cell Content as a Dilute Solution
6. Colloid, the Brain Child of a Chemist
7. Legacy of the Nearly Forgotten Pioneers
8. Aftermath of the Rout
9. Troshin's Sorption Theory for Solute Distribution
10. Ling's Fixed Charge Hypothesis (LFCH)
11. The Polarized Multilayer Theory of Cell Water
12. The Membrane-Pump Theory and Grave Contradictions
13. The Physico-chemical Makeup of the Cell Membrane
14. The Living State: Electronic Mechanisms for its Maintenance and Control
15. Physiological Activities: Electronic Mechanisms and Their Control by ATP, Drugs, Hormones and Other Cardinal Adsorbents
16. Summary Plus
17. Epilogue 

A Super-Glossary
List of Abbreviations
List of Figures, Tables and Equations (
Album of Figures and Tables) References (PDF 193 Kb)
Subject Index
About the Author

Full text of the book

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